Transmission electron micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles isolated from a patient. The image was captured and color enhanced at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland. Image Credit: NIAID
According to a cohort of adult and pediatric antibody-deficient patients, patients who frequently failed to show protective immune responses to infections and vaccinations demonstrated robust T-cell activity and humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. The new study, conducted by researchers at Children’s National Hospital, is the first to show a robust T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 in immunocompromised patients.
“If T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 are indeed protective, it could suggest that adoptive T-cell immunotherapy might benefit more immunocompromised patients,” said Dr. Michael Keller, director of the translational research laboratory in the Cell Enhancement and Immunotherapy Technologies (CETI) program at Children’s National. “With our development protocol for phase IT cell immunotherapy, we want to investigate whether coronavirus-specific T cells may offer protection after a bone marrow transplant and in other immunodeficient populations.”
The study, published in the Journal of Clinical Immunology, showed that patients with antibody deficiency disorders, including congenital immunity defects (IEI) and more common variable immunodeficiency tests (CVID), can trigger an immune response to SARS-CoV-2. The results suggest that vaccination may continue to be helpful for this population.
“These data suggest that many antibody-deficient patients should be able to respond to COVID-19 vaccines, and recent studies at the National Institutes of Health and elsewhere are examining whether these responses are likely to be protective and permanent are, “said Dr. Basement, cellar . The T cell responses in all COVID-19 patients were similar to those in healthy adult and pediatric convalescence participants.
Kinoshita et al. call for additional studies to further define the quality of the antibody response and the longevity of the immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 in immunocompromised patients compared to healthy donors. Also, there is currently very little data on adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in these vulnerable populations.
The study sheds light on the antibody and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 protein spikes using a sample size of six patients, including a family group with three children and their mother. All are antibody deficient and developed mild COVID-19 symptoms, minus one child who remained asymptomatic. The control participants were the father of the same family who tested positive for COVID-19 and another random adult (not the next of kin) had mild COVID-19 symptoms. The researchers took blood samples to test the T cell response in cell cultures and provided a comprehensive statistical analysis of the adaptive immune responses.
“This was a small group of patients, but given the high rate of reactions, this suggests that many of our antibody-deficient patients are likely to develop immune responses to SARS-CoV-2,” said Dr. Basement, cellar. “Additional studies are needed to know if other primary immunodeficiency patients develop immunity after COVID-19 infection and will likely be answered by a large international collaboration organized by our staff at the Garvan Institute in Sydney.”
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Hannah Kinoshita et al., Robust Antibody and T-Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Antibody-Deficient Patients, Journal of Clinical Immunology (2021). DOI: 10.1007 / s10875-021-01046-y Provided by the National Children’s Hospital
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